WHO Urges Everyone to Thank Doctors and Nurses on World Health Day

The day of 7 April is celebrated each years as World Health Day.  The day highlights crucial health issues the world facing each year. In 2020, the main theme of the day is to “Support the Nurses and Midwives.” The World Health Organization (WHO) is urging people to thank doctors and nurses who are working on the front lines during the coronavirus crisis.

WHO called 2020 The Year of the Nurse and the Midwife because, during this pandemic situation when the whole world is fighting against the coronavirus, doctors, nurses, and midwives are the first and foremost persons who provide care to people in their communities.

 Nurses, midwives and other healthcare workers are working on the front lines of COVID-19 response. They are providing effective treatment, high-quality care, leading community dialogues to address questions and fears, also helping the researchers in collecting data for clinical studies. Without nurses, it becomes difficult to achieve COVID-19 response.

In the U.S, while working and providing care to patients, many health care workers died and got a serious infection. Several other care workers may become the carrier of the virus, so they are shifting to tents, hotels and temporary housing to save their loved ones from the infection.

  Dr. Anthony Fauci who is a top infectious disease expert in United State named the health care workers as  Brave Warriors because they are courageously fighting against this deadly virus. 

 He further added, healthcare workers and professionals who are treating the people during this pandemic not only providing life-saving treatments to patients but also putting themselves and their families at the great risk of having the infection. It is obligatory for the American public to appreciate the efforts of these people and should salute and applaud them in every possible way. 

The World Health Organization (WHO) is the main entity that plays a central role in combating the spread of this fatal coronavirus. WHO manages and directs the international response during the infectious disease epidemics or pandemic such as malaria, AIDS and currently the COVID-19. Also, it draws the attention of people towards the major health issues in the world through celebrating the days like World Health Day. During the current situation, it is helping and cooperating with the research institutes to develop the test kits, vaccines, and effective medical treatments. Recently, the WHO has started an international clinical study to test the existing medicines for treating the coronavirus infection. 

 The most influential and compelling step in the WHO’s arsenal is the announcement of the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). It helps the WHO to distribute the funds and resources to the nations who are in need. Also, it conveys the concrete steps to the whole world that should be taken during the pandemic situation as safety measures such as restrictions on traveling and quarantine measures. The members of the Emergency committee continually modify the organization response according to the changing situation. WHO recommendations are not compulsory to follow but many countries are following them for safety.

Must Read: British Government No More Blames Chinese Research  Labs for Leaking Coronavirus

 In early March, WHO declared that the outbreak of coronavirus has gained a pandemic status and took substantial measures to avoid a large number of cases all over the world. It gained praise for taking significant actions at the early stages. The COVID-19 response was much better as compared to the responses to the swine flu pandemic in 2009 and the Ebola crisis in 2014-15. At the end of these epidemics WHO observed its mistakes and alter its way to deal with the outbreaks.

Adhanom Ghebreyesus who is the director-general of the World Health organization said that as the coronavirus outbreak has gained the pandemic status, so it did not alter the goals and mission of the WHO and its members. 

Many observers say that the success of WHO in managing the global crisis lies in the efforts of its director general Tedros Adhanom. During this critical situation, he did not get panic and not afraid of the spotlight as he is efficiently running the organization since 2017. He also faced criticism from the other countries on appreciating the way China cope up with coronavirus outbreak.

This year the stance of WHO on World Health Day  is appreciable. Because it is celebrated to praise the efforts of nurses and midwives in fighting against the coronavirus .Also, the contribution of workers such as security guard, shop keepers, cleaners and delivery people  are not forgettable. Because these people are helping the others to stay home safely. It is the time when whole world needs to act in united manner so that it will  possible to control the coronavirus outbreak.




British Government No More Blames Chinese Research Labs for Leaking Coronavirus

Ever since the coronavirus pandemic has started, there are many conspiracy theories circulating in social media. Some people call it a natural disaster whereas others think its a human-made virus. As there is no strong evidence to prove any of these, the debate continues over and over. A few weeks ago, some of the British politicians blamed China for leaking coronavirus from their research labs in Wuhan, causing its worldwide spread.

The Senior members of the British Government said that this deadly and fatal virus was first transferred from live animal to humans in the Wuhan seafood market. But, some of the medical experts say that there is no proof if the virus was man-made and leaked from a Chinese laboratory or not. It appears that coronavirus occurs naturally. However, this week, British politicians have dropped these allegations and it no more believes that China is behind this global epidemic.

 One member of Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s emergency committee said intelligence did not argue that the ‘virus was zoonotic’ means that it originated from the animals. The statement did not rule out that virus after leaking from the Chinese city Wuhan first transmitted to humans.

Chinese officials have declared the claims about leaking of the virus from the Wuhan laboratory as “Internet rumors.

Must Read: What to do if you have COVID-19 symptoms but not tested yet?

After receiving Detailed classified briefings from the security services, the member of the Cobra committee said that the view about zoonotic theory is credible as it is based on the virus nature. Possibly the presence of a laboratory in Wuhan is not a coincidence. This news is not discounted

Wuhan is the city of China that is home for the institute of virology and where more innovative and advance labs are present.

The $30million institute is Ten miles away from the main point where the outbreak had started i.e. the wildlife market of Wuhan, which is the center of coronavirus pandemic.

The first time, Scientists from this institute said that novel coronavirus is associated with bats. 

In 2018, according to the state-run People’s Daily newspaper these labs were capable of dealing with the experiments of highly pathogenic or zoonotic microorganisms such as Ebola virus.

Scientists of the institute were the first ones who propose that the genome of this virus is 96% similar to that virus present in bats. 

As these labs are famous for high security but some unverified local reports were received that some workers got the infection after having contact with blood at the institute. These workers then transmitted this infection to the local population.

Wuhan Center for Disease Control, which is the second Institute in Wuhan city is hardly three miles away from the main wildlife market. It is believed that scientists also conducted experiments on live animals (such as bats) to observe the mode of transmission of coronaviruses. 

About last night Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s administration said that claims about the virus did not recognize that it originated from the Chinese Laboratory.

Back in 2004, a Chinese lab was also responsible for leaking a virus that led to a Sars outbreak that infected 9 people and killed one person. The government of China also admitted its mistake and said that leakage of the virus occurred due to negligence and the government punished the five officials in this regard. 

The Chinese government tried to cover up the outbreak of coronavirus at its initial stages because the virus is again started to spread from the Wuhan city.

Chinese officials said that perhaps the US military was responsible for bringing the coronavirus in Wuhan.

Zen Rong, an official from the Chinese embassy said that such reports and rumors totally disrespects the significant efforts and the incredible sacrifice of China and neglect the substantial contribution of China to the global public health and safety. 

He further added that China took no time in identifying the virus as a pathogen, sharing the genome sequence with the WHO. It also advised people to take certain measures that are effective in controlling the spread of the outbreak. China also shares its experiences and suffering and also provides help to countries such as the UK.

A spokesman from the Chinese embassy said that there is no conclusion about the coronavirus pandemic origin that has a medical and scientific basis. Still, the work is under process.

According to the statement of WHO, the world is the state of global emergency and the source of this outbreak is still no determined. The main focus should be on repression and stigmatizing language that refers to certain places must be avoided.



A High School Teacher is Printing Face Shields to Protect from Coronavirus

Oscar Valera, a high school teacher uses 3d printers as a hobby and build a variety of crafts. During this pandemic, he is using this hobby to fight against the coronavirus by forming the face shields.

He has printed and distributed nearly 200 face shields in just four days to all the medical professionals throughout the country. These face shields are used by doctors, nurses or the other healthcare workers who have a chance of getting the infection.

As the number of infected people increases day by day so the demand for the N-95 masks, face shield, and other personal protective equipment (PPE)  also increases rapidly. More than 238,800 confirmed cases reported in the U.S this Thursday.

This terrible situation encourages the volunteers to support the medical professionals in several ways such as  Valera, a 3D printer, who build face shields to protect the doctors, nurses and other first responders to the patients who are at the great risk of getting infections through contact.

These face masks save the doctors and other medical staff who work at the frontline from the virus-containing droplets that are released in the air through sneezing, coughing and close contact.

A community workspace nonprofit Maker Nexus in Sunnyvale, California running its three-laser cutting and 13 3D printers. More than 1800 masks are produced for all the local hospitals and it further has received requests for more 13000 masks.

Around 300 people worked as volunteers and helped scour the internet for raw materials to build the face shields. Also, these people go to the hospitals, where the PPEs are required, for printing the visors for making the shields, according to General manger Eric Hess.

He further said that people are working from home through the internet in a calm and peaceful environment and therefore putting their efforts in the need of the hour. The company of Hess uses the open-source Prusa 3D printed shield design form the Czech Republic.

Around 500 face shields have sent to the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center (SCVMC). Here it is estimated that 15 PPE sets are used by nurses over three shifts for only one patient.

Dr. Sanjay Kurani who is the medical director at SCVMC said that in the Bay Area the cases of coronavirus are increasing,  and doctors realized that hospitals have not enough equipment to cope up with the surging number of patients.

Many other companies also producing face shields and playing their roles in this critical situation such as Snap Lab.

Valera further said that he will continue his work and put more effort into helping the people in his terrible situation.

Personal protective equipment is compulsory for the doctors and health care workers who are screening, testing and treating the infected people. But many countries have not enough PPE because of delayed policymaking and slow purchasing processes.

PPE includes goggles, masks and face shields. Doctors and manufacturers have highlighted the declining issue of PPE supplies. According to WHO,  every month the world needs almost 89mn masks and 76 mn gloves for fighting against coronavirus

Some wholesale distributors have increased the prices of masks to $5 from 97 cents per piece. The prices of these things that are used as PPE are rising fast.

Must Read: Seven Tips For a Healthy Diet During Quarantine Period by a Nutritionist 

In the U.S the shortage of PPE is forcing the health care systems to use creative strategies given by CDC for conserving and improvising the alternatives to respirators, face masks, gowns, and eye protection.

Many health care systems reached a rolling point that compels them to create or reuse their protective equipment. Although CDC does not recognize alternatives like lab coats or bandanas as true PPE, many organizations are using them as a last option.

CDC gave guidelines for reusing the PPE or for the home-made PPE.  CDC recommends not to use respirators for more than five times because some health care systems are giving the instructions of using the masks or other PPE for more than five times to conserve supplies.

As a last option, some health care systems are producing their own PPE from the household raw materials.  These home-made PPEs are not as efficient as surgical masks but a study by the University of Cambridge proves that homemade masks that are made from T-shirts approximately block 50 percent of 0.02-1-micron microorganisms while the surgical masks block the 80 percent of the particles.

Recently, CDC has stopped all healthcare providers to use homemade PPE. If they want to use it then they must take some additional precautionary measures along with face shields.

How to take Care of your Mental Health During Coronavirus Pandemic?

The novel coronavirus emerged in late December from the Chinese city of Wuhan now is spreading to the whole world. The virus has spread to at least 182 countries and territories. Over 952,000 cases are reported,  and more than 48,000 deaths occur due to COVID-19 throughout the world.  202,00 people recovered from the infection.

The current situation of this pandemic is not only affecting people physically but also stimulates psychological problems. Anxiety, depression, and fear of infectious outbreaks can be devastating and cause intense emotions in adults as well as in children.  During this stressful situation, people are worried about their health and their loved one’s health. They also face disturbances in sleeping and eating patterns. So a pandemic like this may worsen the quality of life for all people. Typically, the stress also compels them to start using tobacco, alcohol and various drugs.

The researchers of Swinburne launched a new survey for accessing the mental health of the people in Australia during this current pandemic of COVID-19.

The survey will be conducted on a monthly basis and it will be used to examine the mental health progresses among the people. The survey includes questions about how coronavirus outbreak affects the mental health of the people and it also includes the major issues of COVID-19.

Professor Susan Rossell, who is a professorial research fellow at Swinburne’s Center for Mental Health said that people face much stress about the coronavirus outbreak but the major concern is finding the way from where the stress is coming and how people are responding to this condition.

The survey is open for all who are 18 years old or above to access the mental health of the people in Australia at a broader level during this situation.

In this research, the feelings of people will be observed during the starting period of research and then compared to that of June where people may face shock feelings instead of boredom feelings.

The results of this survey will be used to understand the mental situation of the people due to this outbreak so that it may help the authorities in making the policies for supporting the mental health of Australians in the future.

Must Read: A Simple Waterwaste   Test Can Predict COVID-19

According to the CDC the best thing that helps the people to cope with this stress condition is to take care of yourself, family members and friends. Also, help the other to manage the stress so that it will have a strong impact on the community.

People who already have any mental health disorder should continue their treatment and consult their respected doctor immediately if any new signs and symptoms emerge.

People should take breaks from watching and listening to the breaking news and stories related to the coronavirus outbreak. Eat immunity booster for enhancing immunity and eat a well-balanced and nutrients dense meal. Exercise regularly and drink plenty of water. Avoid using tobacco products and alcohol drinking.

If people share the facts about coronavirus and efficiently understand its risk factors, then it will help them to make the situation less stressful and less depressive.

Children and teenagers strongly follow the actions of their elders and parents. So, parents should deal with this outbreak in a calm and confident manner. So that it gives the best support to their children.

If someone suspects to has a  positive test for coronavirus then be separated from the rest of the members and go for isolation. This situation may put some stress even if he does not get the illness. Some may have an amalgam of feeling after coming from quarantine such as sadness, frustration, anger because his friends and loved ones do not want to contact him. Also, he feels guilt as he is not able to do the normal routine task. Also, it leads to other stress-related disorders such as anxiety and fear.

Study Finds a New Way to Prevent Type-1 Diabetes

A recent Um-Madison study reveals that if a gene from insulin-producing cells is removed mice do not develop Type-1 diabetes. This gene induces the autoimmune responses on the body cells so by removing the gene body cells are protected from the attack of their own immune system.

The study suggests the ways to prevent the individuals from Type-1 diabetes who are at high risk, Also, it protects the body from other diseases in which the body cells are targeted by the body’s own immune system. 

 The study is published today in journal Cell Metabolism. No insulin hormone is produced in the Type-1 diabetic patients. This type of diabetes also called Juvenile diabetes. Insulin is a hormone released from the beta cells of pancreases which converts the blood sugar into energy that is required to maintain different cellular or life activities.

During the early stages of the disease, the solider like cells of the immune system called T-cells detect the insulin-producing beta cell as a foreign agent and kill them. Hence it leads to a complete deficiency of insulin in the body.

There is no proper cure available for the disease, but several medications are present in the market to slow down its progression. The disease in the patients can be managed through proper diet, by measuring the blood sugar level at regular intervals and through giving insulin shots. 20 million people across the whole world are having type-1 diabetes. This disease further leads to neuropathy, retinopathy, and high blood pressure. Diabetics patients have a poor quality of life and from the last decade, life expectancy is reduced in the United States.

Must Read: New Measures to Stop the Emergence of Other Coronaviruses

Feyza Engin who is a lead author of the study and a biomolecular chemistry professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison said that the individuals at high risk can be screened because the blood serum of these patients contain autoantibodies and hence through detecting the level of autoantibodies, the doctors can easily detect the person who will be going to develop Type-1 diabetes in near future. 

During the experimental studies in the lab, Engin altered the genetic makeup of mice to intentionally develop Type-1 diabetes. Before the immune system starts to kill their own body cells, scientists removed a gene named IRE1-alpha from the beta-cell. 

Engin expected that removal of this gene in insulin-producing cells would lead to accelerated diabetes. But the gene removal made a striking and unexpected difference in the mice.

Engine believed that if this gene is removed then insulin is not produced, and it accelerated the process of diabetes in mice. But the results were found totally opposite and striking. He added that researchers expected that by removing this gene, beta cells would not able to survive but they observed that the sugar level of blood first increases for a couple of weeks and then becomes normal. This is totally unexpected and unbelievable.

The beta cells were producing the normal insulin level just like the healthy beta cells, but before becoming the normal insulin producer they took a step back into immaturity.

If the gene is removed from the beta cells, they look like to undergo a disguise. After the gene, removal cells lose their maturity and they de-differentiate again into immature cells that exhibit the features of antecedent cells. Hence these cells express all other hormones including insulin. 

He further explained that when the beta cells undergo de-differentiation then they don’t act like normal beta cells as they lessen the expression of many genes which activates the autoimmune response and signals the T- cells to come and kill them. These signals get reduced and hence T-cells do not sense the beta cells as a foreign or problematic agent in the body, so they don’t kill them.

After de-differentiation, the immature beta cells again differentiate into mature and functional beta cells.

National Institute of Health and the Juvenile Diabetes Research foundation support the Engin’s lab for this research.

This research has discovered a very vital point that “the de-differentiation greatly lessens the diabetogenic activity of immune cells.” Through determining the cells that are targeted by the autoimmune response it becomes easy to induce changes in these cells and make them less mature, less functional at the start of the process. This may reduce the progression of other diseases that are related to an autoimmune disorder.


Researchers Discovered the Role of a Novel Protein In Scar Tissue Formation

Researchers at Osaka University have discovered a novel protein that performs a vital role in the formation of scar tissue while healing an injured organ. When tissues get injured, they can heal themselves. Many tissues of the body have the extra ability to heal a wound. The process of wound healing is complex and sometimes during the healing process, something goes wrong which results in the excess formation of connective tissue around the wound area. The excess formation of connective tissue is called Fibrosis which leads to the loss of function in an organ.

The findings of this new study are published in Immunity. Researchers showed the role of the protein named Rbm7, which initiates the death of cells during tissue injury. This protein also recruits some particular type of immune system cells which induces the formation of tissue fibrosis. 

There can be multiple reasons for tissue injury such as trauma, infections and side effects of the drug. The tissue responds in a similar fashion during all the cases i.e. Formation of new tissues during the healing process and replacement of injured tissue by new tissues.

Apparently, the process looks simple and straightforward, but it has a complex interaction between immune cells and tissues. Researchers described that a large number of molecular actors have been involved in this process but the exact mechanism of formation of tissue fibrosis and its prevention is not clearly understood.

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Shizuo Akira, a corresponding author of the study said that Fibrosis is a serious and complicated phenomenon that permanently deteriorates the function of injured tissue. The main aim of our study is to discover the exact mechanism that how tissue fibrosis develops and impairs the function of the organ. Also, want to find a new possible avenue for treating tissue fibrosis.

To materialize their goal, researchers induce a chemotherapeutic drug known as bleomycin in rodents which stimulate lung fibrosis. They observed that a level of protein Rbm7 has increased slowly in the fibrotic lungs. The function of Rbm7 is still unknown.

After observing the rodent models, researchers examined the human samples which were taken from clinical patients having lung fibrosis. They found that the level of Rbm7 protein is also high in human specimens with lung fibrosis.

Kiyoharu Fukushima who is the lead author of the study said that the mice who lack the Rbm7 protein develop a less severe form of lung fibrosis as compared to the one which has the protein. This discovery is becoming more interesting because researchers want to study the molecular basis of the protein Rbm7 for its pro-fibrotic action.

Researchers showed that there is a relationship between the injured tissue cells and a particular type of immune cell. The interaction between both of these cells is known as segregated nucleus-containing atypical monocytes (SatMs) as it plays a central role in the onset of fibrosis. When tissue undergoes damage such as trauma, infection or through drug bleomycin, then it increases the production level of proteinRbm7, which ultimately leads to death of the tissue.

In response to this, the molecules that stimulate the SatMs are secreted, which permanently replace the injured tissue region by scar tissue. 

 Still, there is no treatment available for the fibrosis that has an unknown origin. The goal is to alleviate the symptoms and to slow down the disease progression. In the advance stages, palliative care will be offered to the patient.

Akira further added that the results of the study are remarkable which shows how single protein induces the formation of fibrosis and how it impairs the function of an organ? Through targeting the protein Rmb7, it will be possible to treat and prevent Fibrosis in the future.



Researchers Found New Factors in Understanding Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a mystifying disease that affects millions of people around the world. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Mei University studied pulmonary fibrosis and found a new bacterial protein fragment that initiates the death of lung tissues.

The study was led by professor Dr. Esteban Gabazza from Mei University and a microbiologist and animal sciences professor Isaac Cann from Illinois. The findings of the study are published in the journal Nature communications.

Isaac Cann said that salt-loving bacteria is found in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and bacteria release a peptide molecule that marks the lungs cells for death.

After diagnosis within 5-6 years of life lung tissues become more stiffened and scarred in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. There are certain factors that are involved in the onset of diseases such as environmental factors, medication or infection. Several cases were found to have an unknown origin. These enigmatic cases are known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to IPF Foundation, approximately 50,000 patients die every year in the U.S due to IPF. The ratio of death due to IPF is more as compared to the deaths due to breast cancer.  

The progression of the disease is slow.  The patient reaches a point where he experiences a fast worsening of breathing and this leads to loss of lung function. This phase is known as Acute exacerbation. The triggering cause for an acute exacerbation is still unknown.

Gabazza said that more than half of cases with IPF died due to acute exacerbation. The 50 percent of patients who survive after suffering from the acute exacerbation will live for more than 4 months. 

Previous studies had shown that the proliferation of some bacteria such as certain strains of Staphylococcus, streptococcus, and Halomonas was found in the lungs of patients with IPF. This is because there was a high level of salt deposited in the lining of the lungs. Scientists cultured the bacteria in a lab that is linked with fibrotic tissue for studying what actually bacteria releases for triggering the acute exacerbation. 

Researchers found a substance named a corisin as an exacerbating culprit. Gabazza’s group carried out an experiment on mice who have IPF. They compare the different samples of mice such as those mice given corisin itself, those who were infected with staph. strain and didn’t release corisin, those who were infected with corisin secreting staph. Nepalensis and untreated control group. They found that mice who were given corisin or those with bacterium infection secretions are at a greater risk of acute exacerbation.

Researchers also examined the human samples and found that patients with acute exacerbation have a greater level of corisin in their lung tissues.

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Cann’s group explored the genome of staph. Nepalensis to know the site from where the corisin is secreted. A fragment of a large protein called peptide that triggers the corisin secretions in the lungs. A larger protein was also tested on the lung tissue to check whether it secretes the corisin or not, but scientists found no destructive properties similar to a small fragment 

Researchers are now trying to find out the enzyme that cut the corisin from the large molecule of the proteins. This will help to block the activity of the enzyme to prevent the patients from acute exacerbation. They are also planning to identify the other strains of bacteria which release the corisin or small peptide. They also want to study the role of corisin and other bacterial strains in different types of fibrosis such as in liver and kidney. 

Through knowing the cause of acute exacerbation, scientists will able to find out the way for fighting against it. This discovery could lessen the psychological stress of fighting against an unknown cause in the patients. On the other hand, it also compels the physicians to develop the treatments and drugs for this disease. 



How Crucial is the Cellular Communications Between the Detached Cancerous Cells and Fibroblast for Growing Metastasis

Researchers from the German Cancer Research Center and the Heidelberg Institute for Stem Cell Technology and Experimental Medicine have found that some tumor cells get separated from the parent tumors and then stimulate the connective tissue cells to release certain transmitters for promoting metastasis. This process is done to colonize the other organs and the detached tumors manipulate the environment according to their needs for creating the ‘metastatic niche’

This discovery is helpful for scientists to better understand the mechanism that how these harmful metastases arise. This research paper is published in the journal Nature Communications. 

When cancer spreads to other parts of the body from the initial site then the process is called metastasis. It usually develops when the cancerous cells break their connection from the main or parent tumor and move to the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Through these systems, the detached tumor travels far away from the main site and form new tumors when they settle down in specific tissue.  

 If the cancerous cells detached from the parent tumors, then many of them were died before colonizing other tissues and forming metastases. Because When a tumor detached from the parent tumor then the body immunes system gets activated and protects the healthy cells and tissues of the body from the intruding effects of cancerous cells.

These migrant cells will only survive in the body if they have the power to manipulate their new environment for creating the metastatic niche. This metastatic niche makes them survive in the body by protecting against the body’s immune system.

Thordur Oskarssan and his team of researchers from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Heidelberg Institute for Stem Cell Technology and Experimental Medicine (HI-STEM gGmbH) are concerned in exploring the mechanism that how this metastatic niche evolves. Scientists found that in breast cancer some specific aggressive cells stimulate a certain condition which is similar to the inflammation in the lung tissue. So, it confirms that these cells colonize the other healthy tissues and promote metastases.

Also Read: Human Immune System is Effective Against a Number of Viruses

Two inflammatory signaling molecules known as interleukins are released from the detached cancerous cells. In microenvironment, these interleukins stimulate fibroblasts in the lungs to release two more inflammatory signaling molecules i.e. CXCL10 and CXCL9.

Migrant cancer cells carry receptors on their surface that attach to these signaling molecules which is a pivotal step during the process of metastases. The signaling molecules (CXL10 and CXCL9) and inflammation aid the particular aggressive breast cancerous cells to colonize other tissues and form metastases.

Maren Pein who is a lead author of the study said that the same tumor’s cells that provoke the fibroblast to release CXCL10 and CXCL9 also contain some other receptors for theses cytokines which help the growing process of metastases. This indicates that cellular communication between fibroblasts and detached cancerous cells in the new microenvironment is very crucial for metastasis.  

During the experimental studies, scientists treated the lungs of mice with an inhibitor which blocked the receptors on the cancer cells. These inhibitors used to prevent the growing process of metastasis. 

Scientists took tissue samples from the patients of breast cancer and found that the same cellular communication was also present in breast cancer cells. The process in which “tumors cells having the relevant receptors utilize these interactions along with fibroblast to create the metastatic niche” is also found in the breast cancer patients.

Oskarsson further explained that before developing any treatment approaches, it is necessary to understand the exact mechanism of metastasis.  Initially, the study was carried out to explore the actual process that helps to arise metastases. A better understanding will enable scientists to develop different ways to prevent metastases in the future.



Coronavirus Can Live on Plastic and Stainless Steel for More Than Three Days

A new report is being circulated among people that say the novel coronavirus can live on cardboard for 24 hours and up to 3 days on stainless steel and plastic-based surfaces.  According to the research team, it is possible but understanding it is even more complicated.  They say if the virus stays on something like plastic then its level falls significantly within a few hours.

The research is published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The key point that the researchers observed was the half-life of coronavirus or its decay rate. This half time indicates the time that the virus takes for half its level dies in a given sample.

They found that by placing virus-laden droplets on plastic, half of the virus level was drops after seven hours. Another half was gone after another seven hours and so on. After two days the amount of virus falls to 1/100 of the original one and by the end of three days, the level of the virus was hardly detectable.

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The half-life of the virus for stainless steel was about five to six hours and for cardboards, it was even less i.e. 4 hours.

They further observed that copper is the only surface on which the virus stays for the shortest duration.  From previous studies, Copper is known for its antimicrobial properties. The half-life of the virus reduced to forty-five minutes when droplets were placed on the reddish metal.

One of the study authors Dylan H. Morris from Princeton University said that the initial amount of virus present on the surface is directly related to the amount left behind after a half-life. Greater the level of virus deposited on the surface, the more the amount will be left after one-half life.

Why there is no cure for coronavirus and other viruses?  Have scientists used more or bigger droplets that they would detect the amount of virus left behind on the plastic after 3 days?

Morris who is a candidate in ecology and evolutionary biology said that the absolute time when the virus is barely detectable depends on the initial amount of virus placed on the surface.

Gregory A. Poland who is not directly involved in the study but is a vaccine researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. said that these findings should support those who concerned about their mail.

This Wednesday, Poland told Minnesota Public Radio on a call-in show broadcast nationally that if the exposure to the virus is smaller than there are fewer chances that it will bloom into a full infection. He further added that the virus is nonresistant to the warm temperatures and sunlight, so its decay rate becomes faster in hot conditions as compared to the indoor environment.

If someone could find coroavirus on the surface, then it doesn’t indicate that it is infectious. Still, it’s not difficult to wash hands with soap after touching any bag from the grocery store or retrieving the newspaper or newly delivered envelope.

Also read- Human Immune System is Effective Against a Number of Viruses

Morris and his colleagues compared the viability of this coronavirus on different surfaces with that kind of coronavirus which caused the SARS epidemic in 2002 and 2003. These results were found similar, but the level of SARS virus drops faster on cardboard than the new coronavirus.

Another research team is planning a comprehensive follow up study for observing the toughness of the virus at different levels of humidity and temperature. They would compare the properties of the coronavirus with the flu. The researcher team includes members from the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Health and UCLA.

Huge investment needed for diagnostics, vaccines, and treatment for COVID-19 Pandemic

The coronavirus outbreak which originated in Wuhan, China is becoming a great challenge for the whole world. WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020.

On 26 February 2020, the WHO reported that the number of new cases dropped in China, but it suddenly increased in Iran, Italy, and South Korea. This showed that it is for the first time that the number of new cases had exceeded outside China as compared to the new cases in China.

Now the virus has spread throughout the world and it is the time of global emergency. This is time to take bold actions for tackling the outbreak coronavirus (COVID-19) rather than making the cautions investments.

Leaders of G7 have promised to do everything necessary for addressing the outbreak of COVID-19. As the virus gained the status of the pandemic so it becomes obvious to see potential catastrophic effects at the global level. Economies, the fabric of society and health systems all are at great risk. To deal with this global crisis, leaders from every affected country should take tough decisions.

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To address this situation all the countries must unite and take some courageous actions rather than retreat behind the borders. Global powers such as G20 and G7 are the force that supports and brings a unified global response. They make commitments to ensure the stability of the economy and to support a coordinated research effort to develop treatments and vaccines for COVID-19. Their words must be rapidly matched by their actions.  This week the expected rate for the G7 meetings was high but the rate of results was poor.

Leaders must take some critical actions and ensure that all countries must receive the support which is required to effectively manage the coronavirus breakout. Besides this, it is clear that all countries need more investments in treatments, diagnostics, and vaccines for saving the lives of people and bringing this outbreak to end.

In recent weeks, unprecedented announcements were made for supporting the global economy. To address the fiscal impact of the virus and economic instability, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have decided to give $50 billion and $12 billion respectively.

The amount of funding seems to be great but it does not fill all the gaps.it will help the government of countries to strengthen their economies through national actions but the amount is not enough to cover everything that is required to deal with coronavirus pandemic and to save the lives on earth. At least 8 billion dollars are required for the funding of research, the supply of treatments for all the patients and supporting the public health measures in the countries with the poor health care systems.

No vaccine and treatment available today for this virus. Scientists across the whole world are working day and night for developing these initiatives such as the COVID-19 Therapeutic Accelerator and Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovations (CEPI). A more significant amount is needed if scientists want to develop these treatments rapidly and produce it in enough amount that will available to everyone.

Through the global fair allocation system, CEPI aims to develop the vaccines for viruses and make it in hundreds of millions of doses that will be available within 12-18 months. The amount of $3 billion is needed to make this vaccine in enough amount.

The goal of The Therapeutic Accelerator is to speed up the manufacturing, development and distribution of treatments and vaccines for coronavirus specifically in middle- and low-income countries. It will cost approximately $2.25 billion for producing 100 million courses of treatment at the end of 2020.

Both these initiatives provide more coordination to the efforts of scientists across the whole world. Also, they ensure equal distribution and access to treatments particularly when is unity among the nations is very little.

It is estimated that to compensate for the loss of the global economy due to COVID-19 at least 1 trillion dollars must be required for output loss or 13% of global GDP. Leaders of G7 and G20 need to take bold and faster actions along with more and significant resources.

The situation of this pandemic still can be changed if leaders take swift and decisive actions. For this, countries must be work or act in a united manner that will engage in significant and real coordination.