Study Answers Why People with Diabetes have Weak Bones

A person with Type 2 diabetes is multiple times more prone to injure a bone than a nondiabetic person. Since the number of individuals with diabetes is increasing quickly in the United States, skeletal fragility in patients with Type 2 diabetes is developing. Despite being still little-known, it is a big public health issue.

Bones are living organs that give structure and protection to the body. Platelets are produced in a living space in bones known as bone marrow and give a consistent supply of minerals including phosphorus and calcium.

Whenever bones are injured, they can fix themselves all alone or with medical intervention. Bones are in a continuous condition of repairing through a process known as remodeling. The risk of bone fractures is higher in people with diabetes particularly in those who take insulin.

The body routinely fixes the micro-fractures that are caused by physical activities. In the healing process of bones, the proteins and minerals are broken down in worn-out regions and are replaced with healthy new proteins.

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These new proteins are comprised of amino acids, which normally respond with sugars in the body. Consider how a cut apple progressively browns when exposed to air. The synthetic response between amino acids and sugar inside the body is comparable. Called non-enzymatic glycation, this process happens in tissues all through the body, including in bone. 

Non-enzymatic glycation has a browning impact on proteins much the same as an apple would turn brown, creates tiny chemical bridges known as crosslinks. Crosslinks develop in everybody because sugars are present in their bodies. These sugars form naturally, the formation of non-enzymatic cross-links are not good for anyone because they weaken bones by making them more brittle.

The body can easily ménage these crosslinks by breaking them and getting rid of them. But in individuals with Type 2 diabetes, two troubling factors are identified.

The first troubling factor is the presence of sugar in excess in their body. Because sugar is the fuel that participates in the formation of crosslinks. And in diabetic people, there are more crosslinks in bone than normal and healthy individuals. The researchers think that might be the accumulation of these crosslinks is a reason behind more fragile bones in people with Type-2 diabetes.

The subsequent factor is that individuals with Type 2 diabetes have a low level of bone remodeling, which implies their capacity to wipe out crosslinks is decreased. Researchers say this contributes further to the high number of crosslinks in the diabetic bone.

In diabetic patients, crosslinks contribute to complications like kidney damage, vascular damage, and poor eye health.

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Researchers found that the hard, thick bone that frames the external shell of bones would, in general, have more crosslinks and more vulnerable mechanical properties in diabetics than in nondiabetics.

They are additionally reenacting high sugar levels in cadaver bone. Even though dead body bone is no longer living but the protein structure is still unblemished. When they incubated these bone samples in sugar solutions, the crosslinks produced due to the reaction between the sugars and the amino acids present in the proteins of cadaver bone.

The researchers are currently working to quantify various kinds of crosslinks to know how fractures might occur in patients. Moreover, they are testing various compounds that may break down bone crosslinks and prevent them from forming in any case. Researchers hope that their work will contribute to several treatments in the future and better medical considerations for people with diabetes.


Survey Finds Women Are Not Aware of Cervical Cancer Risks

The Public Health & Social Work researchers from Robert Stempel College surveyed undergraduate female students. They found that most of them were unaware of the risk factors of cervical cancer and they had not had a Pap smear.

Pap smear is also known as a Pap test that is a screening test for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of cancerous or precancerous on the cervix.

An associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Nasar U. Ahmed, an assistant professor in the Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Patria Rojas, and a doctoral candidate in the Department of Epidemiology, Abraham Degarege Mengist investigated more than hundred students of FIU. They examined the connection between the students’ adherence to Pap smear guidelines and their knowledge about cervical cancer.

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More than sixty percent of them hadn’t annual checkups within a year and the remaining students had never received a Pap test. The reasons for being not tested and annual checkups were fear and lack of interest.

This study is published in the Journal of the National Medical Association and is available online to study.

The recent findings show that college students would be more likely to seek and acquire cervical cancer screenings because of their higher literacy with regards to health and their insight into risky sexual behaviors.

Cervical cancer begins in the cervix that is an opening of the uterus, a hollow cylinder that connects the lower part of the uterus of women to the vagina. Most cervical cancers start in the cells that are present on the surface of the cervix.

The researchers found that the students who were aware that multiple sexual partners were a risk factor for cervical cancer had higher chances of accepting a Pap test than the individuals who didn’t know that multiple sexual partners were a risk factor of cervical cancer.

Patria Rojas tells that “This study highlights the fact that there is a loss of screening opportunities during regular medical visits to follow CDC guidelines and gynecological care.” 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that at one time, cervical cancer was the main cause of women death in the United States. Those numbers have seen a consistent decrease in the previous forty years because of regular Pap test screenings, which can identify precancerous cells before they transform into a malignant growth.

The American Cancer Society reports that more than eleven thousand women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer and more than thirty-five hundred will die of it in the United States.

Before the invention of the Pap test, cervical cancer was the leading cause of women death in the United States. The invention of the Pap test helped to save incalculable lives and it is currently the twelfth deadliest cancer among women.

An associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology, and the principal investigator of the study, Nasar U. Ahmed tells that cervical cancer includes in the most preventable tumors and knowledge is the way into its prevention.

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Screening for this malignant growth is done during an annual checkup that a larger part of these students didn’t get, and the vast majority of the surveyed students didn’t know they could get a Pap test through the Student Health Services of the university.

Nasar U. Ahmed concluded that cervical cancer and several women’s lives can be prevented with knowledge and simple practice of a regular visit of a doctor. 




Vitamin K improves Bone Health in Adults

Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and osteoporosis. But here a question arises, whether it is essential for health or not? The answer is yes it is because the deficiency of vitamin k appears to have a negative effect on overall health, especially bone health.

Vitamin K is a group of a compound and most important of these compounds are vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is obtained from leafy green and some vegetables while vitamin K2 is obtained from cheeses, eggs, meats, and synthesized by bacteria. The proteins that are involved in the mineralization and bone formation are activated by vitamin k.

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Scientists Kyla Shea of the Vitamin K Laboratory at the USDA’s Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (HNRCA) at Tufts University and Chris Hernandez of Cornell University’s Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering tell that vitamin k produced by specific bacteria that colonize the gut could support bones too. 

2013 study shows that the risk of bone loss is reduced in a healthy woman who had been through menopause by taking 180 mcg of vitamin k daily.

Hernandez contacted to collaborate with the Vitamin K Laboratory that is headed by HNRCA Director Sarah Booth, after observing a decrease in bone strength but unaltered bone density in mice whose gut microbiome was modified. Hernandez found that vitamin K had frequently been related to fracture risk, however not bone density.

 The research was published three years before in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

In this research, Hernandez said that the perfect place to study this inquiry is the HNRCA. It is a fact that it has the world’s best experts in the biochemistry of vitamin k, but it additionally has unique facilities that make it possible to control the type of vitamin that is included here and to screen the process.

Women, who not even consume 109 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin K per day were more likely to get bone fracture while the risk of hip fracture is higher in women if the vitamin k intake is lower.

Shea said that a large portion of the vitamin K in the eating routine comes from green vegetables, yet the gut microscopic organisms synthesize an alternate type of it. It’s this type of vitamin K that could be influencing bone strength, although the specific mechanism is yet to be determined.

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Shea said, “Many clinical trials with vitamin K measure bone mineral density outcomes, but there may be links with bone strength independent of density. What kind of links might these be? Vitamin K is an enzymatic cofactor that’s required for certain proteins to function. One of these, osteocalcin, is the predominant non-collagenous protein in bone.”

Hernandez tells that Osteocalcin structures a soft and string-like material inside the mineralized portion of the bone and makes the whole bone matrix less brittle. Also, there are a number of treatments for osteoporosis focus on improving bone mineral density, but there are not a lot of approaches to improve bone matrix quality.

“What if we could change the gut microbiome so it makes more vitamin K, which could give people those benefits without having to eat more kale or take a regular vitamin supplement?”

The most recent outcomes of Hernandez and Shea are published in the journal BONE. Both are looking for a grant from the National Institutes of Health to research to confirm the role of vitamin k for bone changes in mice with the modified microbiome.


How Diet Affects the Risk of Esophageal Cancer?

Researchers state that generally, twenty percent of all cancers in the United States are due to physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive consumption of alcohol, and excess weight.

The eighth most common cancer around the globe is esophageal cancer (EC). There are two common subtypes of esophageal cancer (EC) that are adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Some risk factors are associated with esophageal cancer (EC), including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), smoking, Barrett’s esophagus, and alcohol consumption.

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2013-2017 data shows that the rate of new esophageal cancer cases was 4.3 per 0.1 million men and women per year while the death rate was 3.9 per 0.1 million men and women per year. And in 2017, more than forty thousand people were living with esophageal cancer in the United States.

A Mediterranean diet and normally healthy eating except some specific foods or nutrients decrease the risk of esophageal cancers especially esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

2013 study shows that although diet has been related to diseases of the stomach and esophagus hardly few investigations have addressed the association of diet with these diseases. Too much intake of alcohol increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) but not of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) or gastric cancer.

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The fruits and vegetable consumption is inversely correlated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, the evidence is weak for gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Salt and salted foods are recorded as gastric cancer-causing agents, yet there is little convincing proof regarding a role for other dietary items.

National Cancer Institute reports that a healthy diet and regular exercise might help to prevent some types of cancer. If a person avoids risk factors of the disease and increases protective factors then the chances to develop the disease are less while it doesn’t mean, he won’t get the disease. 

Shailja Shah and her colleagues conducted a review examination of the National Institutes of Health AARP Diet and Health Study cohort to estimate the association between dietary magnesium and calcium and the occurrence of esophageal cancer. 

The most risk factor for esophageal cancer is smoking. Smokers are more likely to get esophageal cancer than those who don’t smoke. The risk of esophageal cancer is much lower in children and young adults because the risk of developing cancer increases with age. Several risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are similar. Adenocarcinoma may also cause acid reflux, Barrett esophagus, or obesity.

Researchers reported in the British Journal of Cancer that more than a thousand individuals had esophageal cancer among more than 0.5 million respondents.

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They found that the risk of squamous cell carcinoma decreases with increased calcium intake while the risk of adenocarcinoma increases with increased magnesium intake.

Whenever confirmed especially through interventional modifications, these findings could illuminate dietary modifications that may help to prevent deadly cancers all around.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that every year about fifteen thousand people in the united states are diagnosed with esophageal cancer. Research is needed to more readily comprehend the link between esophageal cancer and the environment, which may help to find other potential risk factors for this disease.

CDC finds that the risk of developing esophageal cancer can be reduced by keeping away from or changing behaviors that are known risk factors for the disease. Esophageal cancers can be prevented by limiting alcohol consumption, maintaining healthy body weight, and quitting smoke.




Is Seltzer Water a “Healthy Alternative” of Soda?

Many people think that carbonated water can’t hydrate them like regular water. They feel that the air bubbles in the carbonated water make it significantly less effective for combatting dehydration.

 Rahel Mathews, a registered dietitian nutritionist, tells that carbonated waters are being advanced as the low-calorie or zero-calorie alternative option to soda. The sales of sparkling water are increased by 13 percent in the past year.

She says that she gets this question every time whether carbonated water is a healthy alternative of soda. The answer to this question is not clear yet. She says might be it is good for you but definitely, it is better than soda.

Seltzer water is simply water mixed with pressurized carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide makes the air bubbles in water but adds acidity to the drinks too. Manufacturers infuse a huge number of these seltzers with the natural flavors. These are just chemicals extracted from animals or plants. The biggest difference between regular water and sparkling water are the bubbles.

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While soda is carbonated water in addition to a sweetener like high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar. A few soft drinks, specifically colas, additionally include phosphoric acid or citrus extract for flavor and to act as an additive just as caffeine.

Thirteen years before, analysts soaked teeth in seltzer water for half an hour and found that the seltzer started to disintegrate the enamel. This isn’t incredible if a person thinks to soak teeth in seltzer water or drink it throughout the day. Yet, specialists contrasted the erosive impacts of seltzer water with coffee, soda, diet cola, and energy drinks and found that seltzer is least harmful to teeth. 

While plain seltzer is superior to acidic soft drinks and coffee. Two years before, the researchers studied the risks of artificial flavors in water. They found that various added substances produce fluctuating levels of acidity, and like past examinations, that acidity caused some enamel erosion.

Both plain and flavored sparkling water could have impacts on your teeth after long exposures. The more distant you go from plain water, regardless of whether that is with carbonation or flavoring, the worse for your teeth. Specialists suggest that to drink bubbly water while eating food and abstain from gargling it around the mouth to keep away from the impacts of acidity on teeth.

Another general concern about seltzer water is that it may cause osteoporosis, a condition where bones get less thick and become fragile. The individuals who consistently drank colas are bound to have some bone loss as compared to the individuals who don’t.

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Also, the individuals consuming colas are additionally more averse to consume foods and beverages which helps to build bone. Individuals who drink seltzer water or other carbonated refreshments beside cola don’t have any of the bone density loss.

Recently, scientists have started to examine whether there are any potential health advantages of carbonated water, and there is some early but supportive evidence. Two examinations with older patients indicated that drinking seltzer water alleviates constipation and stomach pain better than tap water.

Rahel Mathews says that no evidence proves that sparkling water is not good for you, if you are bound to drink carbonated water, there isn’t sufficient proof to surrender it. If you drink a ton of it, the acidity may harm your teeth. However, if there is a choice between acidic soda, seltzer water, and sugary, always pick the seltzer.



A Healthy Diet and Regular Exercise Prevents Age-Related Disorders

Despite the popular opinion that old age brings disease, no matter what, it is possible to maintain good health by following standard guidelines. These guidelines include a healthy diet, particularly in regards to protein levels, regular check-ups, exercise, treatment of basic risk factors, and focusing on personal safety.

The risk of strokes and heart attack attacks is decreased with the treatment of high cholesterol and hypertension and by quitting smoking and controlling diabetes.

Nutrition is important in the whole life. The risk of poor nutrition increases with age because many problems like chronic diseases such as emphysema and heart failure, financial issues, social isolation, and inability to prepare foods can happen.

Regular physical exercises can help a person to maintain a healthy life and physical independence in older age. Physical activities that help to maintain good health are swimming, walking, resistive exercises, yoga, and Tai chi.

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Regular physical activities also a source to prevent people from many age-related disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataracts, cancer, arthritis, atherosclerosis, and hypertension.

Peter Edholm in a research project at Örebro University has studied the effects of exercise, diet, and training on older women. The thesis results show a distinct connection between highly physical activity and good exercise habits in older women.

A healthy diet keeps a body strong, increases the energy level, and sharps the mind. So vegetables, fruits, whole grains, dairy products, and protein should be included in a regular diet.

A healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids makes an older woman more strong and healthy. Peter Edholm’s research conclusively shows that exercise in middle age is linked to healthy and strong aging. It also keeps women away from many age-related disorders.

He explains, “That applies regardless of your exercising habits earlier in life, which supports the adage it’s never too late to start working out. This is the opposite of what usually is presented in the media today. Therefore, the focus should be on increasing the length of physical activity, such as brisk walks, rather than reducing the time that you’re sitting still,” explains Peter Edholm.

Women who are more active at a younger age have bigger muscle and higher physical capacity even in older age. The physical activity in earlier life also benefits people in their later life even if they become inactive in older age. The research also indicates the impacts of exercise on the women who are between the ages of fifty to sixty-five. People who exercise at this age, live a life without any health problem.

Peter Edholm’s research also shows that exercise, combined with a healthy diet, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, produces a more significant effect. Both in regards to explosive muscle strength, physical function, and the ability to build muscle mass.

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Good nutrition is necessary for a healthy life particularly in postmenopausal women, the bones lose mineral content as they are older. 

Postmenopausal women need to increase calcium and nutrient D intake to help prevent osteoporosis and many age-related disorders. Osteoporosis is a bone disease where the bone mineral thickness is decreased, leading to a high risk of bone fracture. Sufficient intake of calcium and nutrient D have been appeared to enormously reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis sometimes in older age.

In this research, he says that older women should do exercise two times a week. Excercise proves more beneficial with a healthy diet. So, both excercise and healthy diet are important in older age.




A High Dose of Cannabis Can Change Human Genetics

A new study published in the journal Translational Psychiatry finds that a high dose of cannabis affects human DNA but it affects stronger to those who smoke tobacco too. This study explores how high doses of cannabis can prompt alterations in DNA methylation, chemical changes that influence gene functioning in the body. This research is led by researchers at the University of Canterbury (UC).

Dr. Amy Osborne is a lecturer at UC College of Science and the lead author of this study. In this study, she says that previous studies have already proved that a high dose of cannabis increases the risk of many mental health issues such as schizophrenia and depression. Heavy use of cannabis is also associated with a heart attack. The study is done in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Otago, ESR, and the University of Otago Christchurch.

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The present study shows how high doses of cannabis causes changes in the gene pathways that may clarify the connection between substantial cannabis use and adverse health outcomes.

On the other hand, in terms of cannabis use impact on DNA methylation and the genome, cannabis seems to have a distinct and more subtle impact than tobacco. It does not alter gene pathways to a similar extent, however, it affects them in quite specific manners.

In this new research, all users of heavy cannabis were from the Christchurch Health and Development longitudinal study. Researchers took their blood samples when they were of 28 years and analyzed for DNA methylation differences between both the users of cannabis and non-users of cannabis.

The greatest changes were in the individuals who smoked both cannabis and tobacco. However, there was evidence of particular and specific DNA alterations in the individuals who smoked just cannabis as compared to the non-users of cannabis. Researchers tell that the most affected genes are those which are involved in heart and brain function.

Study in detail here.

Dr. Osborne tells that cannabis use has become a public health issue, especially in New Zealand where a referendum on whether the production, sale, procession, and use of cannabis ought to be sanctioned is expected to be held after five months.

She tells that the effect of cannabis use on the DNA is timely. Now, it is the most widely used psychoactive substance around the globe and this could be anticipated to increase with legalization or decriminalization.

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The Christchurch Health and Development Study associate contained cannabis users who had never smoked cigarettes, giving an important chance to study the particular effects of a high dose of cannabis on the DNA methylation in the human genome.

In a study, researchers suggest that the effects of synthetic cannabinoid can bring changes in the brain that eventually makes cocaine a much more serious experience than it already is.

The UC study recommends that, while tobacco strongly affects DNA than cannabis, cannabis seems to exert strong effects on genes that are involved in the heart and brain functioning. There is a need to do more work with a larger sample size.

The present study data finds that the effect of the high dose of cannabis on genomes vary from and are less pronounced than the effects of tobacco use. Also, suggestive for the role of DNA methylation in the biological reaction to cannabis. Thus, caution ought to be taken when deciphering comparative cannabis exposure studies that don’t or can’t exclude cigarette smokers.


Zero Calorie Artificial Sweeteners Prevent from Fatty Liver Disease

New research led by Rohit Kohli finds that stevia, a popular sweetener can make potential improvements in a common condition known as fatty liver disease. This pre-clinical research is published in the journal Scientific Reports and is available online to study.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that obesity affects 19 percent of children while a related condition known as the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects one out of each ten children. Fatty liver disease can lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis. Overconsumption of sugar can lead to fatty liver disease and obesity.

A 2018 study shows that oxidative damage in chronic liver damage can be prevented with stevia. Acute and chronic liver damage induced necrosis, cholestasis, and oxidative stress which were significantly improved by stevia.

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The lead author of the study, Dr. Kohli tells that scarring in the liver can be caused due to sugary foods and beverages. However, they don’t have the idea that how non-caloric sugars can affect the liver disease. Dr. Kohli addressed and responded to a question in the first of its kind study. The question is: Can non-caloric sugars prevent fatty liver disease?

In this study, he tested two non-caloric sugars, stevia extract and sucralose by using a preclinical model. Both are widely available and appear in many sweetened foods and drinks. He tells that they were interested in those two compounds because they are the most current and least concentrated in the context of obesity and liver disease.

Five artificial sweeteners including sucralose, acesulfame, neotame, aspartame, and saccharin are approved by the FDA. Stevia, a plant-derived noncaloric sweetener is also FDA approved.

A dietitian, Anna Taylor tells that artificial sweeteners do not raise blood sugar immediately as real sugar raises. Artificial bacteria may cause a change in gut bacteria and lead to more fat storage, which no one desires.

The outcomes of the study were striking. Researchers compared both these sweeteners, stevia extract, and sucralose with sugar. They found that stevia extract brings down glucose levels and makes improvements in markers of fatty liver disease.

A study finds that the utilization of sugars has increased extensively worldwide and soda refreshments appear to be a significant contributor for diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin opposition, metabolic condition, and cardiovascular illness. The researchers looked to concentrate on the effect of soda drinks on the collection of fat in the liver. This has critical clinical implications, as the Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presence corresponds firmly with diabetes, diffuse atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease.

The present study also revealed some potential mechanisms that could be accountable for reversing the markers of fatty liver disease.

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Dr. Kohli tells that they noted a few changes in the gut microbiome and a decrease in the markers of cellular stress. But there is a need to do more work to know the clinical relevance.

Researchers suggest larger and increasingly complete trials to determine whether lowering sugar intake and blocking uric acid generation, may help reduce NAFLD and its downstream complications of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.

The preclinical study is funded by the Stanley W. Ekstrom Foundation. The outcomes of the study led by Dr. Kohli’s team into a clinical trial is also funded by the Stanley W. Ekstrom Foundation to test how stevia effects in pediatric patients.

Dr. Kohli says that interestingly, they have taken an issue that they find in the clinic, examined it preclinically and now they are back to test solution, all in less than two years.




Breakthrough Study Finds a Treatment for Chronic Dry Eyes Disease

Dry eye syndrome is a condition in which the tears evaporate too rapidly, or the eyes do not produce many tears. It can affect both humans and animals. The dry eye disease can affect one or both eyes and it can lead to eye inflammation.

In the United States, dry eye disease includes the most common eye disorders. The treatment available for this disease does not work for everybody. Although the scientist does not know about the exact prevalence of this disease worldwide evaluations fluctuate from 5% to 34%.

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Dry eye disease causes severe eye pain sensitivity to light in most severe cases. The dry areas on the cornea due to dry eye disease can also produce scarring in many cases.

A new study published in the journal Scientific Reports finds an advance treatment for chronic diseases that causes severe dry mouth and dry eyes. This study is done by the researchers at RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences. The research is done in collaboration with the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre and the Royal Victoria Eye.

A patient with dry eye syndrome can experience several symptoms including tearing, eye sensitivity to smoke or wind, difficult to keep eyes open, redness of the eyes, pain in eyes after reading, double vision, a feeling like sand in the eye, feeling soreness, dryness or grittiness in the eyes, and blurred vision.

Tear production decreases at the age of forty years or after this age. When its production falls to a certain point, the eyes can get dry and then easily irritated and inflamed. It happens more commonly in females, particularly after menopause potentially due to hormonal changes.

Reduced tear production can also be linked to a deficiency of vitamin A, radiation treatment, diabetes, autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma or lupus and refractive eye surgeries like laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that increases the chance of dry eye disease.

In Sjögren’s Syndrome, the white blood cells of a patient attack the saliva glands and the body’s tear and cause severe dry eyes and dry mouth. The dry eyes affect the vision of patients, daily life activities, and quality of life.

This disease is more common between the ages of forty and sixty years. The women experience it nine times more than a man.

In this study, the samples from the eyes of patients with the disease were compared with the samples of the eyes of healthy people. It was found that patients with disease had abnormal levels of some molecules that control eye irritation.

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The working of a molecule, microRNA-744 is similar to a switch that turns the cells production off and on. The researchers found that the excess of this molecule causes uncontrolled measures of irritation from the cells that wreck the glands and harm the surface of the eye. In a lab setting, the researchers were successful in reducing microRNA-744 molecule which in turn reduced the inflammation levels.

The study’s co-author and lecturer at RCSI’s School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Dr. Joan Ní Gabhann-Dromgoole tells that this is an initial move toward a potential new treatment, and substantially more pre-clinical testing is required before they can form it into something that is prepared for patients. However, this research gives the chance to treat the root cause of dry eye disease instead of only disease symptoms.

The researchers also compared the various levels of other microRNA molecules in patients’ cells to the healthy controls. This could help to diagnose Sjögren’s Syndrome patients. Right now, there is no test for this syndrome.


Genetically Engineered Vaccines Might Be the Only Hope for COVID-19 Treatment

Researchers around the globe have started working on vaccine development to protect people from COVID-19. But making a vaccine against COVID-19 is the biggest challenge to global health for many reasons. In last month, about eighty institutes and companies started working on gene-based vaccines instead of using traditional methodologies that take years.

The director of virology and vaccine research at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Dan Barouch says when Chinese researchers exposed the genome of strange, quick-spreading infection at the start of 2020, she realized immediately that nobody would be immune to it.

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The labs anticipated that a commercial vaccine could be accessible for human use by mid-2021. It took five years to reach the Ebola vaccine widespread trials that were fast-tracked. If Barouch and his partners offer a protected and effective concoction in a year, it will be the quickest vaccine development ever. That is a major assuming in any case.

Although a few gene bases vaccines have been created for other viruses, not one has been marketed for human disease.

A conventional vaccine infuses into the body embeds select pieces of infection in cells close to the infusion site. The immune system recognizes molecules on these pieces known as antigens that respond by making antibodies, molecules that can discover the virus anywhere in the body, and kill it. Once this happens, the immune system recollects how to quash the invaders to stop the infection in the future.

Rather labs are moving to gene-based vaccines. Researchers use data from the genome of the infection to make an outline of select antigens. The blueprint is made of RNA or DNA that holds heredity instructions. Then, they inject the RNA or DNA into human cells.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals, headquartered in Plymouth Meeting, Pa., is utilizing the DNA-plasmid approach. Many years before clinical trials were launched by it, focusing on spike proteins of a different coronavirus disease called Middle East respiratory disorder (MERS). Joseph Kim is a chief executive officer who says that the antibody levels in vaccinated people “are as good or better than those we see in blood samples from people who [naturally] recovered from MERS.”

DNA-plasmid vaccines are more stable than RNA vaccines. Common enzymes present in the body can rapidly degrade the RNA vaccines. Warmth can also ruin them. It is mandatory to keep RNA vaccines refrigerated or frozen, which makes logistical obstacles, especially in developed countries. Higher temperature makes DNA-plasmid vaccines more stable.

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Although the time from outbreak to little tests has been faster than it would have been utilizing the egg approach, there is no assurance that the extended trials of genetically engineered vaccines won’t take years. Luckily, COVID-19 doesn’t seem to change as quickly as influenza, recommending that when an effective vaccine created, it might offer protection for a long time.

Companies are increasing the development time for a COVID-19 vaccine to a limited extent by testing vaccines in various animal species at once and in few people. Normally the process is that only one animal will be used at a time, and people later to ensure that symptoms are small, the immune response is large and the disease is vanquished. Lack of time warrants more serious risk.

A virologist and coronavirus expert at Arizona State University, Brenda G. Hogue says that until now, no model vaccine is cleared favorite. But she says the speed of genetic work and the companies are tossing behind it are encouraging. She feels extremely positive.