Trump asks Bizarre Questions on Insulin Intake, despite Being non-Diabetic 

U.S President Donald Trump has recently announced a scheme that will work to reduce the cost of insulin, a hormone administered to diabetic patients. During the announcement, he asked if he should be taking insulin even though he is not a diabetes patient.

Trump said that he does not use insulin but should he be taking the hormone? He said that he has never given it a thought but he is aware of the fact that people usually severely affected by the disease which is shocking.

Also read- First Wave of Coronavirus is not Over Yet, WHO Warns

Type 1 diabetes patients take insulin daily and sometimes, several doses in a day as their pancreas does not function properly since it is unable to produce the hormone, insulin.

People are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic needs the hormone regularly depending upon how the body is using the hormone. Trump, however, does not have a history of either type of diabetes.

The National Diabetes Statistics Report from 2017 states that in the United States, diabetes is a prevalent condition affecting 30.3 million people. Out of this population, most of them are affected with Type 2 diabetes which is almost 90% to 95%.

People who are Type 2 diabetic do not entirely depend on the external dose of insulin. They can control their body glucose levels by controlling their diet and adapting to a healthy lifestyle. On the other hand, Type 1 diabetes patients depend on their daily doses of insulin.

A reporter asked President Trump why does he want to take insulin which he did not respond to and asked Jerome Adams, his surgeon general to answer. He told the President that his body is making enough insulin due to which he is not diabetic and does not need to take externally administered insulin. He explained that people like him can make insulin of their own and they utilize the hormone produced by their own body.

On Tuesday, President Trump said that the copay costs of the most senior recipients of Medicare will be covered under this plan. He announced that the patients will be able to access several insulin types and they will have to pay as less as $35 for the supply of a whole month thus dramatically reducing the cost of insulin.

A study suggests that the latest versions of insulin were priced triple the amount in nearly a decade starting from the year 2002 to 2013. This hormone is used regularly by around 7 million US citizens and it is an essential drug for them to live.

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The Health Care Cost Institute released data that shows that on average, $5,705 was paid by Type 1 diabetes patients for insulin in the year 2016 which is twice the amount they paid for the drug in 2012.

A survey was conducted in 2018 by UpWell Health which is a company in Salt Lake City. The company is a provider of medicines and other supplies for several chronic illnesses at home. The study suggests that the cost of insulin has risen so much during the previous years that nearly half of the diabetic patients cut down their dose of insulin or stopped taking the drug altogether for some period.


First Wave of Coronavirus is not Over Yet, WHO Warns

The whole world is fighting with the new COVID-19 cases every day, while the World Health Organization (WHO) warns people that we are still in the middle of this outbreak. The executive director of the World Health Organization, Dr. Mike Ryan says that currently the world is not on the verge of a second wave of coronavirus because the first wave of coronavirus is not over yet.

Taking an example of India, one of the most populated countries of the world, the population is nearly 1.3 billion where more than six thousand new cases were reported on Tuesday, raising its aggregate to more than 0.1 million including more than four thousand deaths.

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The infection has taken hold in the poorest areas of the country for which no vaccine is available. The vast majority of India’s cases are gathered in the western states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Mumbai. The virus has moved in the east as the migrant workers returned to their homes or villages from the largest cities due to lockdown.

The president of Brazil, Jair Bosonaro has criticized the local leaders and the state authorizing the stay-at-home measures that WHO has advised. This stay home order was to ensure that the virus is controlled before killing more people.

In Brazil there are more than 300000 coronavirus cases reported and nearly 23 thousand deaths. While in the US, the coronavirus cases have reached 1.6 million. Sao Paulo Gov. João Doria has restrained the complete lockdown in Brazil and plans to relax limitations on June 1.

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Russia has reported a record one-day spike in coronavirus deaths, bringing the national death toll to more than 3,800. Right now, Russia is at number three among the international counties with most coronavirus cases and deaths.

The foreign minister of Spain has also commented on this situation saying that the European Union should agree to open the international borders and figure out which non-EU nations are safe to travel. Arancha González Laya says that they need to start working with European partners to retake the opportunity of development in European regions.

South Korea has requested its citizens to wear face masks while traveling. The whole country is currently battling with a number of infections, all connected with coronavirus. However,  The World Health Organization has warned that the pandemic is not over yet. Despite spending so much time in planning control policies and losing lives, the world is still in the middle of the first wave of coronavirus with no way to predict its end.

The Health Ministry of South Korea is planning to re-open the high-risk businesses, for example, bars, clubs, exercise centers, and karaoke rooms to require QR codes to register clients so they can be identified in case of a viral cluster reported.

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Around the world, the virus has infected 5.5 million individuals, killing nearly 350,000, as per Johns Hopkins University report. Europe has confirmed more than 170,000 deaths and the U.S. has seen almost 100,000. Still, the experts believe that this calculation might not be the actual representation of the viral toll.


Chinese Virologist Warns the World about New Pandemics to Hit Humankind

Shi Zhengli is the famous ‘batwoman’ for her work in investigating the pathogenesis and the progression of diseases in bats. She has recently stated that more deadly epidemics are in transit and all the countries need to increase their research work into the threat of deadly zoonotic diseases that transfer from animals to humans. She has also called for a more efficient international collaboration in the battle against new pandemics. Currently, the whole world is facing a coronavirus pandemic and it would not be a surprise to expect new cases of more deadly pandemics in the near future. 

This coronavirus outbreak began in Wuhan, in the Hubei Province of China last year. Medical experts are now convinced that this infection has been originated from a wild animal from the famous seafood market in Wuhan.

Coronavirus is still continuing to spread all across the world with more than 5.5 million cases reported in 188 countries and more than 300000 deaths by a coronavirus. Shi is the principal researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. She revealed new and conceivably more deadly viruses are still around even when the world is battling the current pandemic.

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She says that people might be able to prevent any upcoming disease outbreak. But for that, even researchers should play a part and start working ahead of time to predict any of these unknown infections. she also says that the prime importance should be given to the infections that are carried by animals like coronavirus. If researchers would not do this, there are high chances of a rather deadly pandemic in the near future. 

Rumors on social media suggest that this batwoman she and her family has escaped from China, carrying many private records to the US embassy in Paris. It was believed to be true until she was called back to her lab by the end of last year after a new respiratory condition was recognized as a new form of coronavirus.

A Chinese journalist, Gao Yu says that they came to know later that the Wuhan Institute of Virology completed gene-sequencing and related tests at the start of January. A scientific report declared that coronavirus was engineered in Chinese lab to infect humans, on purpose, raising to the controversy, is coronavirus manmade?

A professor of medicine at Flinders University in Adelaide, Petrovsky commented saying that when a new virus makes its way from animals to humans, it normally stabilizes itself on its new host. However, the new pandemic appears to be adapted to infect people even more. 

The suggestions may not be useful for researchers or governmental departments working on controlling coronavirus. There is currently no proof of a ‘viral leakage’  from the lab still there are many unanswered mysteries. 

Read more- Socially Isolated Individuals are at higher risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Death from All Causes

It could be either a remarkable incident or a sign of human involvement. There are chances that this incident was an accident and turned out that humans could be a perfect host to sustain this new coronavirus. This new theory sparks a new fear that probably coronavirus was developed in the virology lab and this pandemic is actually the viral testing on human subjects.

The United States and British intelligence officials have blamed virologists at the Wuhan institute for accidentally spreading the disease while testing this dangerous virus on bats. They insisted that Covid-19 was genetically made in the Wuhan lab as China wanted to prove that it has a more significant role than the US in controlling the world order. 

Conclusively, most researchers are of a belief that the novel coronavirus has spread from bats to humans through an intermediary species that was sold at a seafood market in China. They have also almost rejected this conspiracy theory that the virus could have been engineered in a laboratory on purpose. Still, it is too early to make a conclusive statement on coronavirus origin and entry. Probably with more extensive research, it would have some scientific evidence to support any information on it. 

Socially Isolated Individuals are at higher risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Death

People who are socially isolated are more likely to have cardiovascular risks such as heart attack or stroke as compared to those people who are socially active.

The German study, which is to be presented tomorrow at the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) Virtual Congress says that socially isolated individuals are almost fifty percent more likely to die for any reason. The research also indicated that an absence of monetary help increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

This research is led by Dr. Janine Gronewold and Prof Dirk M. Hermann from the University Hospital in Essen, Germany performed within the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (HNR). They analyzed data from more than four thousand individuals of an average age of 59.1 years who were selected into a large community-based investigation between 2000 and 2003.

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The study participants entered the examination without any cardiovascular disease and researchers followed them for almost thirteen years. Toward the beginning of the examination, data was collected on various kinds of social help, with social integration surveyed based on marital status and dwelling together, contact with dear loved ones, and participation of the political, community,  religious, and sports or professional organizations.

Dr. Gronewold explains that the physical health of socially isolated individuals is also affected. If someone feels lonely and has no contact with the family members or friends is at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, heart attack or stroke, and death.

A study finds that molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the high risk of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood.  Social stress and loneliness are related to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Social isolation leads to enhanced myelopoiesis, glucocorticoid resistance, oxidative stress, and upregulated pro-inflammatory gene expression.

Socially isolated individuals have elevated blood pressure and increased peripheral vascular resistance while atherosclerosis develops in socially isolated animals.

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She further said that the present study lets everyone know that strong relationships with friends and family members are much important for their heart health, physical health, and similar role of classical protective factors like acceptable cholesterol levels, healthy blood pressure, and normal weight.

Professor Jöckel, one of the PI’s of the HNR says that this perception is specifically compelling in the current conversation on the COVID-19 pandemic, where social contacts are or have been pertinently restricted in many societies.

Researchers followed study participants for almost 13 years, during this follow-up more than three hundred cardiovascular events, heart attack or strokes happened, and more than five hundred deaths among the study participants. After removing the impact of other factors that may have contributed to these cardiovascular events and deaths like standard cardiovascular risk factors.

They found that future risk of cardiovascular events was increased to 44 percent and deaths from all causes to 47 percent due to lack of social integration. While a lack of financial support was related to a 30 percent increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.     

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Dr. Gronewold tells that researchers are unable to understand the reasons for poor health in socially isolated individuals, however, this is clearly a stressing finding, especially during these times of prolonged social distancing due to coronavirus pandemic.

Prof Hermann says that what they do know is that they have pay attention to this, work out how relationships with family and friends affect the heart and physical health, and find compelling ways of handling the issues related to social isolation to improve overall health and life span.

Study Finds Numerous Breast Cancer Causing Environmental Carcinogens

Breast cancer is one of the most common intrusive types of cancer in women with the highest cases in North America and Europe while it continues to affect women of all ages, worldwide. Only five to ten percent of breast cancer cases are linked with inherited genetic mutations like BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Researchers say that a superior comprehension of how environmental carcinogens contribute to breast cancer is required to stop future breast cancers and lower frequency rates.

They have found numerous environmental carcinogens that increase the risk of breast cancer. They used ionizing radiation as a model and distinguished key mechanisms within the cells that when disrupted cause breast cancer.

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Ruthann Rudel, an environmental toxicologist at Silent Spring Institute and one of the study’s co-authors. She says that researchers are fully aware that several environmental carcinogens play a significant role in the development of breast cancer.

But when regulators tried to assess whether an environmental carcinogen is destructive or not, the tests they used didn’t catch the effects on the breast. This gap in testing means that green light is given to potential cancer-causing environmental carcinogens for use in consumer products.

This study is published in the journal Archives of Toxicology in which Rudel and study’s coauthor Jessica Helm reviewed more than four hundred investigations to distinguish the sequence of natural changes that happen in breast cells and tissue from the hour of radiation exposure to the development of a tumor. Then they made a map of these consecutive changes, revealing numerous interconnected pathways by which ionizing radiation prompts breast cancer.

They made the map using a system called an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP). AOPs were designed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as a way to speak how complex diseases like breast cancer development, and to support regulators, drug companies, and chemical manufacturers anticipate how environmental carcinogens may affect diseases early in the research process.

Study the details by clicking here.

Rudel tells that it turns out, to be expected, breast cancer is much more intricate than how it’s passed on in traditional cancer models. Ionizing radiation triggers breast cancer through DNA damage in traditional models.

A new model by Silent Spring shows that ionizing radiations not only damages DNA but also increases the production of two molecules called receptive nitrogen and oxygen species. The production of these two molecules causes destruction inside cells, altering DNA, causing inflammation, and disturbing other significant biological activities.

Rudel says that The Silent Spring team also found that breast cancer-causing biological changes are highly effected by reproductive hormones like progesterone and estrogen. Reproductive hormones also animate the proliferation of cells within the breast, similarly environmental carcinogens encourage cell proliferation to enable the breast more susceptible to tumors. Particularly, the breast is more susceptible during the critical periods of development like pregnancy or puberty.

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Linda Birnbaum is the former director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. She says that the present study is an important contributor to the field and a true wake-up reminder for regulators.

Regulators have been missing basic data by keeping an oversimplified model of how carcinogens cause cancer, potentially allowing carcinogens to enter into air, water, and products.

The AOP project is a part of the Silent Spring Institute’s Safer Chemicals Program which is growing new cost-effective methods of screening chemicals for their effects on the breast. Information created by this exertion will help government organizations control carcinogens more successfully and help organizations in developing safe items.


 Mother and Daughter Graduated from the Medical School in Family Medicine and General Surgery 

For the first time in history, a mother-daughter duo has not only graduated medical school together but also working in one hospital.

It is reported by The University of Medicine and Health Sciences (UMHS) Dr. Cynthia Kudji and her daughter, Jasmine has matched at the same hospital, LSU Health in Louisiana. Cynthia has graduated with her medical degree in Family Medicine while her daughter, Jasmine has received her degree in General Surgery.

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The mother-daughter duo was studying in different medical schools for year and they were extremely excited to hear that both are matched at the same hospital. Cynthia has received her degree from UMHS while Jasmine did her M.D and received a degree from LSU School of Medicine in Louisiana.

Dr. Cynthia Kudji came from Ghana in West Africa. She became pregnant with her daughter at an early age of 23. She postponed her plans of pursuing a medical degree as she was expecting but she continued to work as a nurse for many years. She was a Nurse Practitioner and an RN for nearly ten years after which she decided of going to medical school.

Dr. Cynthia had not always fantasized about becoming a medical doctor as she had not seen many medical practitioners as role models at a young age since there was not enough representation.

Cynthia said that when she was younger, she had not seen many TV shows in which African Americans were shown as academically successful individuals. When she decided to study medicine Cynthia still had doubts if she is intelligent enough to become a doctor and was not sure if she can do it.

Also read-  Coronavirus Spreads Directly and Not Through Contaminated Surfaces (New CDC Report)

She took a trip to her homeland and got the motivation to pursue her dreams. She chose UMHS to study medicine after looking at various medical schools.

She said that the school offered a personalized program that catered to her needs since she was not like the other students as she was older and did not have enough time due to which the small timing of classes was beneficial for her.

Jasmine also had problems adjusting at her medical school since she was living far from her mother and not being a traditional student, it was very challenging for her.

Dr. Jasmine Kudji said that she and her mother communicated with each other via Skype or they had to Facetime whenever they had any struggle but it was very difficult for them at first as she and her mother were very close to each other and they took their time to get used to living far away from one another.

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The mother-daughter duo used technology to stay close to each other while studying at the medical school at the same time.

Both doctors are thrilled to start practicing medicine and enter this new phase in life together. Dr. Jasmine said that she experienced medical school side by side with her mother which allowed both of them to make the most of it together. She also said that her mother also being in medical school simultaneously was very helpful as both of them shared the same struggles which people outside medical school do not usually understand.


After China, Second Wave of Coronavirus Confirmed in Philippines

The Department of Health (DOH) reported that the second wave of coronavirus illness (COVID-19) transmission is currently happening in the Philippines.

A report from GMA news shows that Health Secretary Francisco Duque III told in the Senate Committee of the Whole Hearing that the first wave coronavirus outbreak occurred in the start of the year when imported cases were identified.

In a report by The Philippine Star, Duque said that the nation has been confronting a second wave of the coronavirus transmission since March.

KAMI recently announced that VIPs underlined the risk of creating a second wave of coronavirus disease that may be more terrible than the principal wave. They also expressed disappointment over Pinoys who went malling after the lifting of the enhanced community quarantine.

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The coronavirus outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. Researchers accepted that the infection originated from an animal at one of Wuhan’s wet markets.

Dr John Wong clarified that a wave means to rise or fall in any case, including that the nation’s initial three cases recorded in January were viewed as the principal wave while the subsequent wave started in March.

He says in an online briefing with DOH, “There was a very small wave last few days of January, and then there was a lull, and then we had our second wave, which is the first major wave, which is more than 10,000 cases. We are now in the trough of the lower part of the second wave.”

But Duque also announced that the nation has already flattened the curve of coronavirus cases because of fewer cases reported daily.

Wong clarified that flattening the curve of coronavirus cases means keeping the number of cases from exceeding the limit of emergency clinics. He said that an increase of 538 coronavirus cases was seen per day, but now the every day tally has dropped to 220, just because of the enhanced community quarantine.

Wong says, “When we say ‘flatten the curve,’ we flatten in relation of health system capacity, measured in terms of hospital beds, ICU beds, ventilators.”

Senator Kiko Pangilinan raised a question during the hearing that is there anyone who can disclose to everyone that how they can say that the curve is already flattened, when they haven’t tested enough.

Senator Risa Hontiveros was also concerned over the proclamation of health chief. She says that it is hard to sate that they have flattened the curve without gathering any real and solid information. They should first clear on their benchmarks and indicators.

The clinical counsel to the National Task Force on COVID-19, Ted Herbosa tells that there are few researchers who are stating that they just pushed the principal peak farther, that implies that they bought time. The peak will go up, as soon as they opened up.

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Herbosa tells that he and his fellow experts used the reproductive number of the viral infection to decide the curve, with the objective. He noticed that the nation had the option to bring down the rate to about 0.6 during the height of the ECQ (enhanced community quarantine)  usage, however, most recent information show the number is drifting around 1.

Duque said the Health Department is currently centred around preventing a third wave of coronavirus cases as quarantine limitations gradually ease. The agency is taking a shot at guaranteeing that “minimum health standards”, like decreasing weakness, diminishing transmission and lessening contact, are followed.

The Health Department had earlier warned when the second wave of coronavirus wasn’t happened that the people should not stop practising preventive measures and social distancing.



91 Years old Butler who Fed 11 American Presidents Dies of Coronavirus

Wilson Roosevelt Jerman is one of the longest-serving employes of White House who served eleven presidents as a butler, cleaner, and doorman since 1957, has died. Fox 5 DC reported that he has died of coronavirus.

He joined White House in 1957 when Dwight D. Eisenhower was president. He held jobs there first as a housekeeper afterward a doorman, and butler. Jamila Garrett is the oldest granddaughter of Wilson Roosevelt Jerman who told Fox 5 that he served as a cleaner during the Eisenhower administration.

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Garret says that Jacqueline Kennedy was the first lady who elevated his grandfather as a butler in the White House during her administration. She said, “She was instrumental in ensuring that that happened.”

TheCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that older adults and individuals conditions are at higher risk for severe cases of the coronavirus illness with underlying medical conditions. It also explains the way through which a person can not only prevent himself from coronavirus illness or death by coronavirus but also many other people.

The White House Historical Association reported that the White House spanned many years of changes, as security endeavors increased and sixteen hundred Pennsylvania Ave. evolved from an official living arrangement into a significant catering facility.

His granddaughter, Shanta Taylor Gay says, “He was authentic. He was a quiet but stern man. Very giving, never fussed or complained. Always said he lived a blessed life.”

Gay tells that Jerman initially resigned from the White House in 1997 however returned to the White House in 2003. He went out in 2012 as maître d’ under then-President Barack Obama.

Near to the end of his profession, he ventured into a part-time role. He was one of the White House’s longest-serving employees of the White House.

The World Health Organization published Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public to stay aware of the most recent data on the COVID-19 that is available on the WHO website and on all the national and local public health authorities.

Most nations around the globe have seen instances of COVID-19 and many are encountering outbreaks. Experts in China and some different nations have succeeded in slowing their outbreaks. But the circumstance is unpredictable so people should check regularly for the most recent news.

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Some portion of his life span there, serving at the pleasure of presidents from both ideological groups, may have been his propensity for keeping mum about his activity outside of the work environment.

He told Vanity Fair in 2017, “There would be too many questions asked. You see, you never see. You hear, you never hear. And you don’t know anything.”

Johns Hopkins University reports that coronavirus cases have been reached more than 1.5 million in the United States and more than 92,000 deaths by coronavirus have happened domestically.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the common symptoms of COVID-19 are cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fever, chills, muscle pain, sore throat, the new loss of taste or smell. But these all are not possible symptoms, some other less common symptoms are also reported like vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea.

Around the world, the coronavirus cases were approaching 5 million as of Wednesday evening, with more than 325,000 deaths by a coronavirus.

Gay tells that her grandfather, Wilson Roosevelt Jerman suffered a stroke in 2011, and Obama helped with ensuring he was taken care of while in the hospital, even sending flowers. Toward the end of his vocation, Obama honored Jerman for his over 50 years of administration with a plaque and a coin to represent to every President he served.



Low Levels of Physical Activity during lockdown Increases the risk of chronic diseases

Researchers have found that individuals with chronic diseases such as hypertension, lung disease, and obesity reduced their physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown. 

The research led with the London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the University of Bath also found comparative low levels of physical activity for individuals with depression and disabilities.

In this study, data is collected from an online survey of more than five thousand adults aged 20 years and more. This survey confirms that more than fifty percent of individuals have kept up a similar intensity of physical activity as they did before COVID-19 lockdown while one-fourth of them have adopted low levels of physical activity.

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This latter group, who reduced their physical activities during COVID-19 lockdown have health conditions that increase the risk of experiencing the most serious impacts of COVID-19, should they contract the SARS-CoV2 infection.

Dr. Nina Rogers (UCL Epidemiology & Public Health) is the lead author of the study. She says that low levels of physical activity put people at high risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, and obesity that are also risk factors for more serious complications if anyone develops COVID-19.

Study in detail here.

Researchers are worried because multiple lockdowns might lead to low levels of physical activity that could increase the number of individuals who are most vulnerable to severe complications from COVID-19.

The present study also found that individuals with chronic diseases as well as the individuals who saw themselves or others in their homes to be at risk had more frequently adopted an inactive lifestyle.

Dr. Chrissy Roberts is an Associate Professor at the London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and senior author of the study. She says, “We believe that the trade-off between being protected from COVID-19 and the health detriments of reduced physical activity could place already vulnerable populations in a potential ‘no-win’ situation.”

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At the point, when they are discussing the more vulnerable individuals, who already have basic health issues, but the individuals who see themselves to be in danger as well.

They could well observe occasional cycles of COVID-19, as they do with influenza. If that is the situation, then they need to think to protect individuals from this COVID-19 pandemic, or the one that could come next year.

During coronavirus pandemic, the physical activities are more important for all people to protect them from several severe health conditions. Physical activity may include gardening, cycling, play, walking, dance, active recreation, doing heavy shopping, house cleaning, and participation in sports.

If an individual feels that he is at risk now and reduces his physical activity then this could set him on a course towards building up similar hazard factors that would make them helpless against extreme complications from COVID-19 in ensuing epidemic waves.

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 Study participants were named doing the “Same,” “Less” or “More” than their usual power of physical activity by contrasting their intensity of physical activity before the COVID-19 lockdown with their intensity of physical activity during the lockdown.

During the survey, this type of questions with multiple response options was asked: “Before the outbreak began, what type of exercise did you regularly do?” with response options 1) None, 2) Mild (walking short distances, doing DIY) 3) Moderate (A gentle workout, digging the garden, dancing) 4) Vigorous (Running/Jogging/Hiking, Cycling, Weightlifting). 

Overall, this new report suggests that ignoring the health and fitness in coronavirus pandemic could bring long term side effects. Medical experts suggest adding light to moderate physical activity during this lockdown period to be fit and active.



Study finds a link Between Air Pollution and Parkinson’s disease

A new study published in the journal Toxicological Sciences finds that traffic-related air pollution can harm the brain cells and increases the risk of Parkinson’s disease. The presence of chemicals in diesel exhaust can trigger the harmful development of a protein in the brain called alpha-synuclein, which is commonly found in individuals with the disease.

Previous studies have also confirmed that individuals living in regions with increased levels of traffic-related air pollution tend to have higher rates of Parkinson’s disease.

Dr. Jeff Bronstein is a professor of neurology and director of the UCLA Movement Disorders Program. In this study, he tested the impacts of diesel exhaust on zebrafish in the lab to understand the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the brain.

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He tells that it’s extremely important to have the option to determine whether it is the effect of air pollution or it’s something different in urban environments. While testing the chemicals on zebrafish in the lab, he stated that lets researchers coax out whether traffic-related air pollution components affect the brain cells in a way that could enhance the risk of Parkinson’s disease.

The freshwater fish functions admirably for examining molecular changes in the brain because the neurons of this fish behave similarly to humans. Also, the fish are transparent that enables researchers to study the biological processes easily without killing the animals.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can be different for everyone including impaired posture and balance, speech changes, slowed movement (bradykinesia), rigid muscles, tremors, and writing changes.

A UCLA postdoctoral fellow and the study’s first author, Lisa Barnhill tells that it was easy to see what was happening inside the brains of zebrafish at different time-points during the study.

She added the chemicals present in the diesel exhaust to water in which the zebrafish were kept. Researchers observed changes in the behavior of animals that were caused due to the presence of these chemicals. They found that neurons were dying off in the exposed fish.

After this, they researched the brain activity in several pathways known to be identified with Parkinson’s disease to see how traffic-related air pollution was contributing to cell death.

Parkinson’s disease is related to the poisonous accumulation of alpha-synuclein proteins in human brains. One way these proteins can develop is through the interruption of autophagy, the process in which old or damaged proteins are broken down.

Proteins continuously form and disposes of in healthy brains, it requires communication between neurons but when the disposal process doesn’t work then only new proteins are formed and old or damaged proteins never get cleared away.

In Parkinson’s disease, alpha-synuclein proteins do not dispose of and pile up in harmful clumps in and around neurons, eventually kills them and interfere with the best possible working of the brain. This can bring about different symptoms like muscle rigidity and tremors.

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The researchers examined the neurons of fishes for tell-tale pouches that engulf old and damaged proteins including alpha-synuclein proteins before exposing them into diesel particles. Bronstein says that they observe that pouches moved along, and appeared and disappeared.

The researchers replicated the experiment using cultured human cells to ensure that traffic-related air pollution could similarly affect human neurons as they affected neurons of zebrafish. Exposure to diesel exhaust had similar effects on those human cells.

Bronstein concluded that the outcomes of the present study explain why air pollution increases the risk of Parkinson’s disease.